Laureate

获奖者奖项年份获奖者画像【介绍】国籍机构
Ulf Svante von Euler
Nobel1970【学术贡献】Humoral transmitters in sympathetic nerves
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Ulf Svante von EulerForMemRS (7 February 1905 – 9 March 1983) was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 for his work on neurotransmitters.Swedish
Joseph S. Takahashi
Gruber2019【学术贡献】Joseph S. Takahashi has done pioneering work on the molecular and genetic basis of circadian rhythms in mammals
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Joseph S. Takahashi, PhD, of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center is perhaps best known for his group’s discovery of the Clock gene in mice, which is a master regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals. Takahashi made groundbreaking discoveries in the neurobiology of circadian rhythms, including the isolation and cloning of the Clock gene. His use of innovative approaches to observe clock oscillations throughout the body in real time has revealed the broader impact of the circadian system in regulating the timing of cellular events in health and disease.

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center’s Joseph S. Takahashi, PhD, is one of the most recognized names in circadian biology. Although he had already made significant contributions to the field, the breakthrough that brought Takahashi to fame—the cloning of the mouse Clock gene that encodes a master regulator of circadian rhythms—came in 1997. This advance opened the door to a new realm of studies of circadian biology, including many conducted by Takahashi’s own lab.

Notably, the group followed up on the discovery of Clock by identifying the mouse gene Bmal1, the Clock gene’s partner in regulating circadian biology. The proteins encoded by the two genes, BMAL1 and CLOCK, join to form a complex that regulates the way other genes are activated in a circadian fashion. Takahashi also led his team in discovering a key link between circadian biology in mammals and an important model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, by cloning the conserved Clock and Bmal1 genes in the fly, and separately, by pinning down the genomic location of a mutation in Syrian hamsters known as tau. The tau mutation turned out to affect the gene casein kinase 1 epsilon, which is evolutionarily related to the fly gene doubletime—a regulator of PER, a protein that is also key in mammalian circadian biology and is regulated by CLOCK–BMAL1. This means that despite differences, many molecular aspects of circadian biology are conserved between mammals and flies.

None of these findings would have been possible without Takahashi’s tenacity. At the time Takahashi started looking for the genes behind circadian rhythms in mammals, the proteins PER and TIM were known to regulate circadian biology in flies, but many doubted it would be possible to find genes dictating the complex behaviors of mammals. Even when the group did discover a genetically mutant mouse with an altered circadian rhythm, it wasn’t trivial at the time to determine what gene was altered in the mouse because the mouse genome wasn’t yet available and DNA-sequencing technologies were nowhere near as advanced as they are today. Instead, ten members of the group spent three years using a labor-intensive technique called positional cloning to localize the mutation to the Clock gene. The group then demonstrated that the mutation in Clock was truly the reason for the altered circadian rhythms they observed by putting a wild-type copy of the gene back into the mice, which restored their circadian rhythms to normal.

More recently, Takahashi has become interested in a possible link between circadian rhythms and longevity. In humans and other animals, it has been shown that disrupted circadian rhythms can contribute to various disease states, but the molecular mechanisms are murky. Separately, many studies have found that calorie-restricted diets may increase lifespans in at least some animals. Takahashi noticed that in many of the calorie-restriction studies, feeding time was restricted as well, leading him to wonder whether an interplay between circadian rhythms and feeding explains, at least in part, the differences in longevity. “It’s going to take at least one year, maybe two more years, before the experiment’s over,” Takahashi says. “But it’s really an interesting time.”
Michael Rosbash
Nobel2017【学术贡献】Discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Michael Morris Rosbash (born March 7, 1944) is an American geneticist and chronobiologist. Rosbash is a professor at Brandeis University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Rosbash's research group cloned the Drosophila period gene in 1984 and proposed the Transcription Translation Negative Feedback Loop for circadian clocks in 1990. In 1998, they discovered the cycle gene, clock gene, and cryptochrome photoreceptor in Drosophila through the use of forward genetics, by first identifying the phenotype of a mutant and then determining the genetics behind the mutation. Rosbash was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2003. Along with Michael W. Young and Jeffrey C. Hall, he was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".American
Robert Fettiplace
Kavli2018【学术贡献】Pioneering work on the molecular and neural mechanisms of hearing
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Robert Fettiplace has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of sound transduction and demonstrated that each hair cell in the cochlea of the inner ear is sensitive to a specific range of sound frequencies. His experiments revealed that hair cells are organized along the cochlea in a pattern that reflects their frequency selectivity. Using sensitive physiological measurements and theoretical modeling, he discovered that this selectivity reflects an intrinsic electrical property of the cell, set by the density and kinetics of its ion channels that induce a resonance at a particular frequency.
Linda B. Buck
Nobel2004【学术贡献】Discovery of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Linda Brown Buck (born January 29, 1947) is an American biologist best known for her work on the olfactory system. She was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with Richard Axel, for their work on olfactory receptors. She is currently on the faculty of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.American
Julius Axelrod
Nobel1970【学术贡献】Humoral transmitters in sympathetic nerves
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an American biochemist. He won a share of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 along with Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler. The Nobel Committee honored him for his work on the release and reuptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters, a class of chemicals in the brain that include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and, as was later discovered, dopamine. Axelrod also made major contributions to the understanding of the pineal gland and how it is regulated during the sleep-wake cycle.American
A. James Hudspeth
Kavli2018【学术贡献】Pioneering work on the molecular and neural mechanisms of hearing
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
James Hudspeth has provided the major framework for our understanding of the process that transduces sound into neural signals. Extending from each hair cell is a bundle of fine processes that act as sensors. Hudspeth used ingenious methods to reveal how sound-induced vibrations, which set the hair bundle in motion, evoke an electrical response in the hair cells through a direct mechanical connection between the hair bundle and ion channels. He also revealed how sound signals, which can be extremely small, are amplified within the inner ear.
George Wald
Nobel1967【学术贡献】Mechanisms of Vision - chemical processes
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
George Wald (November 18, 1906 – April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who studied pigments in the retina. He won a share of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Haldan Keffer Hartline and Ragnar Granit.American
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
Nobel1932【学术贡献】Function of neurons in the brain and spinal cord
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington OM PRS FRCP FRCS[1 (27 November 1857 – 4 March 1952) was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in the early 1920s. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Edgar Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian, in 1932 for their work on the functions of neurons.[1[1 Prior to the work of Sherrington and Adrian, it was widely accepted that reflexes occurred as isolated activity within a reflex arc. Sherrington received the prize for showing that reflexes require integrated activation and demonstrated reciprocal innervation of muscles (Sherrington's law).[1[1 Through his seminal 1906 publication, The Integrative Action of the Nervous System,[1 he had effectively laid to rest the theory that the nervous system, including the brain, can be understood as a single interlinking network. His alternative explanation of synaptic communication between neurons helped shape our understanding of the central nervous system.British
Halden Keffer Hartline
Nobel1967【学术贡献】Mechanisms of Vision
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
American
Thomas Jessell
Gruber2014【学术贡献】Groundbreaking Work on the Neural Networks of the Spinal Cord
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
A Londoner by birth, Thomas Jessell has made the United States his home for the past four decades. In 1978, a year after receiving his PhD in neurochemical pharmacology from Cambridge University, Jessell moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he worked as a post-doctoral researcher in the Harvard University neuroscience lab of Gerald Fischbach, studying the development of the synapses between motor neurons and muscle cells.

In 1981, Harvard appointed Jessell as an assistant professor in the Department of Neurobiology , where he remained for four years before moving to Columbia University in New York City. At that time, 1985, the molecular neurobiology revolution was still in its infancy. Jessell anticipated, that molecular genetic approaches were going to be essential for unraveling the mysteries of the central nervous system (CNS), including his specific area of interest: the motor circuitry of the spinal cord.

In the ensuing years, Jessell conducted a series of groundbreaking studies that have identified many of the key cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms that control the neural development and organization of the spinal cord. As a result, he is now recognized as one of the world’s leaders in the field of motor neuroscience. Jessell has shown, for example, how certain signaling molecules, such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh), determine the “fate” (subtype and role in movement) of motor neurons during the earliest stages of spinal cord development. He has also pioneered processes that coax embryonic stem cells into becoming motor neurons.

Jessell’s research has given scientists important new insights into how stem cells might be used to treat degenerative spinal cord diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). But the implications of his discoveries go beyond the spinal cord. Neuroscientists now use the spinal cord as a model system for studying the neural circuitry of other, more complex areas of the CNS.

Jessell has inspired and mentored a long line of graduate and postdoctoral students through the years, including many who are now recognized leaders in neural developmental research. He is currently the Claire Tow professor of Neuroscience and Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics at Columbia, and also serves as co-director of the university’s Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute.
Andrew Victor Schally
Nobel1977【学术贡献】Production of peptides in the brain
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Andrzej Viktor "Andrew" Schally (born 30 November 1926) is an American endocrinologist of Polish ancestry, who was a corecipient with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Polish, Canadian/American
Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson
Nobel1982【学术贡献】Discovery of prostaglandins
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (born 21 May 1934) is a Swedish biochemist. He shared with Sune K. Bergström and John R. Vane the 1982 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related substances.Swedish
Carla J. Shatz
Kavli2016【学术贡献】The Discovery of mechanisms that allow experience and neural activity to remodel brain function
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Carla Shatz showed how patterns of activity in the developing brain instruct and refine the arrangement of synapses between neurons. She demonstrated that the formation of appropriate connections between the eye and the brain of mammals depends on neuronal activity before birth. She discovered that spontaneous waves of activity sweep across the retina early in development, and showed that these organized activity patterns select the final set of connections from a coarse, genetically-determined map. Her demonstration that “neurons that fire together, wire together” links the mechanisms of brain wiring during development to those underlying adult learning and memory.
Shigetada Nakanishi
Gruber2007【学术贡献】created sophisticated tools to help us investigate the brain, and used these tools to make remarkable discoveries about the molecular processes used throughout the nervous system: our senses, movement control, cognition, learning, memory and much more.
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Over the last forty years, Shigetada Nakanishi has unraveled many of the molecular secrets that underpin the function of the human nervous system. His work has created new tools for researchers, and new drug targets for pharmacologists.

A full understanding of the workings of the human brain is still decades or more away. But Shigetada Nakanishi’s work is bringing it closer. He is an unusual researcher who has both created sophisticated tools to help us investigate the brain, and used these tools to make remarkable discoveries about the molecular processes used throughout the nervous system: our senses, movement control, cognition, learning, memory and much more.

Nakanishi’s achievements include:

Expressing genes in frog eggs to find new genes and proteins associated with brain function
Using this technique to identify receptors in the membranes of neurons that trigger the biochemical steps that lead to learning, memory and vision
Understanding how some of these proteins act in the “electrical” circuits formed between neurons.

Through his broad approach Shigetada Nakanishi is laying the foundations for us to understand how our brains work – from the molecular level through to the complex interactions between networks of neurons.

For his achievements, Nakanishi, director of the Osaka Bioscience Institute, will receive the 2007 Gruber Prize for Neuroscience on November 4, 2007 at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in San Diego, California. The prize consists of a gold medal and $US500,000.
Marcus E. Raichle
Kavli2014【学术贡献】The discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Marcus E. Raichle designed methods for visualizing the activity of the normal living human brain. These techniques permitted the quantitative measurements of blood flow and metabolism in localized regions of the brain and provided the basis for all modern functional imaging studies. They allowed mental operations such as reading, attention, and memory to be associated with activity in specialized networks of brain regions, present in all human brains. Raichle’s observation of systematic patterns of ongoing brain activity when the subject is in a resting state has transformed the way the human brain is now being studied in health and disease.
Michael M. Merzenich
Kavli2016【学术贡献】The Discovery of mechanisms that allow experience and neural activity to remodel brain function
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Michael Merzenich demonstrated that sensory circuits in the cerebral cortex can be reorganized by experience in adulthood. Different parts of the body are represented in a continuous map in the somatosensory cortex. After demonstrating reorganization of this map after injury, Merzenich showed that simply expanding or limiting the use of different fingers leads to a corresponding change in the representation of the hand in the brain. Similarly, he showed that the auditory cortex can change its map of sound frequencies after individuals are trained to detect fine differences in pitch. This discovery helps explain how humans can recover their perception of speech with electronic cochlear implants, which generate signals much simpler than normal auditory inputs. Merzenich showed that neuromodulators as well as cognitive factors including attention determine whether adult plasticity takes place. This work is being extended in humans to maximize learning and recovery from brain injury and disease.
Roger Guillemin
Nobel1977【学术贡献】Production of peptides in the brain
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (born January 11, 1924) is a French-born American neuroscientist. He received the National Medal of Science in 1976, and the Nobel prize for medicine in 1977 for his work on neurohormones, sharing the prize that year with Andrew Schally and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow.French, American
Brenda Milner
Kavli2014【学术贡献】The discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Brenda Milner discovered regions of the brain specialized for memory formation and other cognitive functions. She found that HM, a neurological patient with damage to the hippocampus and surrounding regions, could not acquire new memories of events, but could speak, reason, and recall long-past memories. By studying this patient and others, she discovered that the medial temporal lobes are needed to form one kind of memory, which we now call episodic memory, and not for other kinds of memory like procedural memory. She made similar discoveries of specialized functions within the frontal lobes for planning and organizing behavioral sequences.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley
Nobel1963【学术贡献】Ionic mechanisms of nerve cell membrane
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley OM PRS (22 November 1917 – 30 May 2012) was an English physiologist and biophysicist. He was born into the prominent Huxley family. After graduating from Westminster School in Central London, from where he won a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, he joined Alan Lloyd Hodgkin to study nerve impulses. Their eventual discovery of the basis for propagation of nerve impulses (called an action potential) earned them the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963. They made their discovery from the giant axon of the Atlantic squid. Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War, Huxley was recruited by the British Anti-Aircraft Command and later transferred to the Admiralty. After the war he resumed research at The University of Cambridge, where he developed interference microscopy that would be suitable for studying muscle fibres.British
Mu-Ming Poo
Gruber2016【学术贡献】Pioneering and Inspiring Work on Synaptic Plasticity
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Neuroscientist Mu-Ming Poo, PhD, of the University of California, Berkeley, and the Institute of Neuroscience (ION) at theChinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai, has pursued an exceptionally wide range of research interests throughout his career. “I characterize my career as a random walk,” he says. “When I bump into an interesting problem, I will work on it for as long as I can contribute. Then I move on.”

Poo has made many seminal findings regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity in the brain. He discovered, for example, that the “communication” tips of motor axons, known as growth cones, are able to secrete the neurotransmitter acetylcholine before coming in contact with muscle cells and that functional synapses form rapidly after nerve-muscle contact. He also found that neurotrophins (proteins that promote the growth and survival of neurons) are able to quickly increase the effectiveness of signal transmission at neuromuscular junctions.

Poo has also made numerous significant contributions to other areas of cellular neuroscience. He has, for example, determined the role of cyclic nucleotides and specific proteins in determining how nerve processes differentiate into axons vs. dendrites and identified a cytoskeletal “meshwork” that emerges at the initial region of the axon to regulate polarized intracellular transport after axon/dendrite differentiation. He has also characterized the time window in spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), a process through which neuronal spiking activity regulates the strengths of connections between neurons.

In 1999, Poo became the founding director of ION, a position he continues to hold today. Through his tireless efforts, that institution has become a renowned neuroscience research institute, producing exceptional research and helping to train a new generation of neuroscientists.
Arvid Carlsson
Nobel2000【学术贡献】Signal transduction in the nervous system/dopamine
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Arvid Carlsson (25 January 1923 – 29 June 2018) was a Swedish neuropharmacologist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease. For his work on dopamine, Carlsson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000, together with Eric Kandel and Paul Greengard.Swedish
Roger Wolcott Sperry
Nobel1981【学术贡献】Functions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Roger Wolcott Sperry (August 20, 1913 – April 17, 1994) was an American neuropsychologist, neurobiologist and Nobel laureate who, together with David Hunter Hubel and Torsten Nils Wiesel, won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work with split-brain research. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Sperry as the 44th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.Swedish, American
Jeffery C. Hall
Nobel2017【学术贡献】Discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Jeffrey Connor Hall (born May 3, 1945) is an American geneticist and chronobiologist. Hall is Professor Emeritus of Biology at Brandeis University and currently resides in Cambridge, Maine. Hall spent his career examining the neurological component of fly courtship and behavioral rhythms. Through his research on the neurology and behavior of Drosophila melanogaster, Hall uncovered essential mechanisms of biological clocks and shed light on the foundations for sexual differentiation in the nervous system. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences for his revolutionary work in the field of chronobiology.Along with Michael W. Young and Michael Rosbash, he was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".American
Ann M. Graybiel
Gruber2018【学术贡献】the structure, organization and functions of the basal ganglia.
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Ann M. Graybiel, PhD, of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), pioneered our understanding of the important role that basal ganglia, a group of nuclei (clusters of neurons) deep within the forebrain, play in a wide range of neurological disorders. At the time she started her research, in the 1970s, most scientists were ignoring that area of the brain. Graybiel, however, persevered. In a groundbreaking experiment, she found that the striatum, the largest nucleus within the basal ganglia, was not a homogenous mass of cells (as was commonly believed at the time). Instead, it had a distinct and sophisticated architecture with column-like modules — dubbed striosomes by Graybiel — that distributed nearly every known neurotransmitter. She also found that striosomes were surrounded by a matrix, which was itself modular. In an extraordinary series of subsequent experiments, Graybiel went on to demonstrate the functionality of this architecture. One of her key findings was that the striosomes projected mainly into the dopamine pathways of the substantia nigra, a basal ganglia structure involved in reward as well as movement. This led her to discover that dopamine-related activity in the striatum undergoes massive reorganization during the learning of new habits — evidence that the striatum plays a key role in behavioral learning. Graybiel and her team also found that changes in striatal neural activity during the learning process lead to the formation of habits, including pathological habits, such as those that characterize obsessive compulsive disorder. More recently, Graybiel has discovered that different families of genes are expressed in striosomes, and that some of those differences are associated with exaggerated compulsive behaviors. Furthermore, using optogenetics, she demonstrated that those behaviors can be manipulated. Graybiel’s groundbreaking contributions to science regarding the architecture and function of basal ganglia have not only deepened our understanding of how the healthy brain works, but have also helped to identify what goes wrong in the brains of people with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder and depression.
Camillo Golgi
Nobel1906【学术贡献】Structure of the Nervous System
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Camillo Golgi (Italian: [kaˈmillo ˈɡɔldʒi]; 7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system. He studied medicine at the University of Pavia (where he later spent most of his professional career) between 1860 and 1868 under the tutelage of Cesare Lombroso. Inspired by pathologist Giulio Bizzozero, he pursued research in nervous system. His discovery of a staining technique called black reaction (sometimes called Golgi's method or Golgi's staining in his honour) in 1873 was a major breakthrough in neuroscience. Several structures and phenomena in anatomy and physiology are named for him, including the Golgi apparatus, the Golgi tendon organ and the Golgi tendon reflex. He is recognized as the greatest neuroscientist and biologist of his time.Italian
Sir Peter Mansfield
Nobel2003【学术贡献】Discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Sir Peter Mansfield FRS (9 October 1933 – 8 February 2017) was an English physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared with Paul Lauterbur, for discoveries concerning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Mansfield was a professor at the University of Nottingham.British
Bert Sakmann
Nobel1991【学术贡献】Function of single ion channels in cells
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Bert Sakmann (born 12 June 1942) is a German cell physiologist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Erwin Neher in 1991 for their work on "the function of single ion channels in cells," and invention of the patch clamp. Bert Sakmann was Professor at Heidelberg University and is an Emeritus Scientific Member of the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany. Since 2008 he leads an emeritus research group at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology.German
Cornelia Isabella Bargmann
Kavli2012【学术贡献】Elucidating basic neuronal mechanisms underlying perception and decision
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Cornelia Bargmann has pioneered the study of how genetic programs control the operation of neural circuits. By exploiting the simplicity of the C. elegans nervous system, Bargmann has identified fundamental principles of neural circuit logic. The functional circuits involve fast synaptic transmission and volume transmission via amines and peptides as well as gap junctions – much like our nervous system – but are more amenable to genetic analysis. She provided the first evidence, in any animal, for the detailed neuronal pathway between a specific sensory receptor protein and behavior.
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Nobel1973【学术贡献】Ethology
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen FRS (/ˈtɪnbɜːrɡən/; Dutch: [ˈnikoːlaːs ˈnikoː ˈtɪnbɛrɣən]; 15 April 1907 – 21 December 1988) was a Dutch biologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz[1[1 for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns in animals. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, the study of animal behavior.Dutch
Carla Shatz
Gruber2015【学术贡献】Pioneering Work on the Molecular Mechanisms that Control Brain Development and Plasticity
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Carla Shatz grew up in West Hartford, Conn., during the 1950s and 1960s as a self-described “science nerd” — an unorthodox stance for a girl at that time. Her interest in science only deepened during her undergraduate years as a chemistry major at Radcliffe College, particularly after working on her honor thesis with Harvard University neurophysiologists (and future Nobel laureates) David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel.
After graduating from Radcliffe in 1969, Shatz won a Marshall scholarship to study physiology at University College London, leading her to become a neuroscientist. She then returned to Hubel and Wiesel’s lab for her doctoral studies. In 1976, she became the first woman to receive a PhD in neurobiology from Harvard University. She was then hired by Stanford University School of Medicine, becoming the first woman at that institution to receive a tenured professorship in basic science. Shatz remained at Stanford until 1992, when she moved with her then-husband to the University of California, Berkeley. In 2000, she returned to Boston to chair the Department of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. Seven years later, Shatz traveled across country one more time, when Stanford University invited her to become the David Starr Jordan Director of Bio-X, a multidisciplinary institute that fosters collaboration among biomedical and life science researchers, clinicians, engineers, physicists, and computer sciences. She continues in that position today.

For more than three decades — and in labs at three major institutions — Shatz has been a pioneer in identifying and describing what happens during critical periods of brain development, both before and after birth. She was the first to demonstrate that the visual system in the mammalian brain is not hardwired, but is shaped even in utero by spontaneous “waves” of neural activity that prune and strengthen neural connections. She also made the groundbreaking discovery that MHC (major histocompatibility) Class I genes play a major role in this synaptic remodeling. At the time, MHCI proteins were known only for their role in the immune system, but she found that they are also present in nerve cells. Other major discoveries by Shatz include the finding that MHCI molecules interact with another immune system molecule shared with neurons, the PirB receptor. By removing PirB receptors from the brains of mice with Alzheimer’s disease, Shatz demonstrated that the animals did not develop the disease. These and other findings have opened entirely new avenues of research into the causes and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and other devastating brain diseases
James E. Rothman
Kavli2010【学术贡献】Discovering the molecular basis of neurotransmitter release
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
James Rothman developed a cell-free assay system to analyze the basic cell-biological processes that mediate membrane trafficking. He identified two soluble proteins (NSF and SNAP) that are important for vesicular transport and membrane fusion in non-neural cells. Remarkably he found that these proteins, when exposed to brain extracts, formed a complex with the vesicle protein VAMP and two plasma membrane proteins, syntaxin and SNAP-25, precisely the proteins that Scheller had identified earlier. The tertiary complex of one vesicle protein, or v-SNARE, with two target membrane proteins, or t-SNAREs, is fundamental not only to transmitter vesicle fusion but to all forms of membrane fusion.
Walter Rudolph Hess
Nobel1949【学术贡献】The "interbrain" (hypothalamus) used to control activity of internal organs
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Walter Rudolf Hess (March 17, 1881 – August 12, 1973) was a Swiss physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 for mapping the areas of the brain involved in the control of internal organs. He shared the prize with Egas Moniz.Swiss
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
Nobel1906【学术贡献】Structure of the Nervous System
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (Spanish: [sanˈtjaɣo raˈmon i kaˈxal]; 1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system. He and Camillo Golgi received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906, with Ramón y Cajal thereby becoming the first person of Spanish origin who won a scientific Nobel Prize. His original investigations of the microscopic structure of the brain made him a pioneer of modern neuroscience. Hundreds of his drawings illustrating the delicate arborizations of brain cells are still in use for educational and training purposes.Spanish
Richard H. Scheller
Kavli2010【学术贡献】Discovering the molecular basis of neurotransmitter release
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Richard Scheller has used a combination of biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology to identify several key synaptic vesicle and plasma membrane proteins involved in fusion of the neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with the membrane of the presynaptic terminal. In particular, he characterized the first synaptic vesicle membrane associated protein, v-SNARE or VAMP, and the first plasma membrane associated target proteins, t-SNAREs or syntaxin and SNAP- 25. Using physiological assays, Scheller demonstrated the importance of these proteins for exocytosis.
Ragnar Arthur Granit
Nobel1967【学术贡献】Mechanisms of Vision - Wavelength discrimination of the eye
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Ragnar Arthur Granit ForMemRS (October 30, 1900 – March 12, 1991) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish and later Swedish scientist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1967 along with Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye".Finnish, Swedish
Okihide Hikosaka
Gruber2018【学术贡献】the structure, organization and functions of the basal ganglia.
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Okihide Hikosaka, MD, PhD, of the National Institutes of Health’s National Eye Institute (NEI), has made groundbreaking discoveries regarding the role played by the basal ganglia — clusters of neurons located deep in the forebrain — in behavior. While working during the early 1980s as a postdoctoral researcher with neuroscientist Robert Wurtz, Hikosaka discovered that neurons found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which is part of the basal ganglia, have key connections to the superior colliculus, a brain structure that transforms sensory input into movement output, including saccadic, or voluntary, eye movements. After returning to Japan, Hikosaka continued to study the basal ganglia, making a string of remarkable findings. He showed, for example, that eye movements made by monkeys in anticipation of an expected reward were the result of tonic neural inhibition and a quick release of the inhibition in an area of the basal ganglia known as the caudate nucleus, and that a distinct type of dopamine neurons was involved in this process. Hikosaka then found that the basal ganglia play a central role in complex hand movements. Importantly, the anterior and posterior parts of the basal ganglia work separately for the initial learning and the later skillful performance. After his return to NEI, Hikosaka extended his research on the basal ganglia and related brain areas. He demonstrated that dopamine neurons function differently in different areas of the basal ganglia — findings that upended the then-existing view of the role of dopamine neurons in emotion and motivation. Hikosaka also demonstrated that neurons in the lateral habenula, which receives input from the basal ganglia, become activated when animals are either not rewarded or are “punished” with an air puff to the face. In recent years Hikosaka found that old reward histories create long-term value memories of many objects and that animals are automatically attracted by the historically good objects. This behavior is controlled selectively by the very posterior part of the basal ganglia (tail of the caudate nucleus – substantia nigra pars reticulata – superior colliculus). By greatly expanding our understanding of the brain’s reward and memory system, Hikosaka’s work has opened up exciting new avenues of research — not just for the study of motivation, but also for unraveling the neurobiological underpinnings of many neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia and drug addiction.
Sir John Carew Eccles
Nobel1963【学术贡献】Ionic mechanisms of nerve cell membrane
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Geobiography of John Eccles.Australian
Stanley Cohen
Nobel1986【学术贡献】Control of nerve cell growth
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
American
Antonio Caetano Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
Nobel1949【学术贡献】Leucotomy for certain psychoses
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (29 November 1874 – 13 December 1955), known as Egas Moniz (Portuguese: [ˈɛɣɐʒ muˈniʃ]), was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern psychosurgery, having developed the surgical procedure leucotomy—​known better today as lobotomy—​for which he became the first Portuguese national to receive a Nobel Prize in 1949 (shared with Walter Rudolf Hess).Portuguese
Sir Henry Hallett Dale
Nobel1936【学术贡献】Chemical transmission of nerve impulses
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Sir Henry Hallett Dale OM GBE PRS (9 June 1875 – 23 July 1968) was an English pharmacologist and physiologist. For his study of acetylcholine as agent in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses (neurotransmission) he shared the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Otto Loewi.British
Paul Greengard
Nobel2000【学术贡献】Signal transduction in the nervous system
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Paul Greengard (December 11, 1925 – April 13, 2019) was an American neuroscientist best known for his work on the molecular and cellular function of neurons. In 2000, Greengard, Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. He was Vincent Astor Professor at Rockefeller University, and served on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Cure Alzheimer's Fund, as well as the Scientific Council of the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation. He was married to artist Ursula von Rydingsvard.American
Masakazu Konishi
Gruber2005【学术贡献】discovered fundamental neural mechanisms that underlie sound localization in a brilliant series of experiments
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Owl brain maps reveal how we hear and learn

The way owls pinpoint their prey in absolute darkness has taught us how we map sound in our brains. And it’s led to better understandings of how our brains learn and change with experience.

For their initial discovery of the topographical sound map in an owl’s brain, and two decades of follow-on research into sound perception and brain learning, the 2005 Neuroscience Prize of the Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation was awarded to Masakazu Konishi and Eric Knudsen.

Owls have one of the most sensitive auditory systems in the natural world, allowing them to hunt their prey at night. The accuracy with which owls target the direction of their prey (using the time difference between a sound arriving at each ear) is around three times than that of a human. That’s why they made an ideal research animal for Masakazu Konishi and Eric Knudsen, who wanted to study the perception of sound location – how we know where something is when we hear it.

To their surprise, they found that the owl’s brain creates a map. In the owl’s midbrain there is a two-dimensional layout consisting of thousands of neurons. A noise from one location in the world activated only the neurons in a specific position in the map. If the noise moved up, down, left or right, the patch of activated neurons moved across the brain map in a corresponding pattern.

That led to more questions. Like: how do owls make the map?

How do their brains translate sound signals into spatial signals? How old are they when they learn to make a map from sounds? Do young owls learn new maps more easily than do adult owls?

Konishi and Knudsen have continued working on the answers to these and other questions in their separate labs since 1979. Among their many results:

A single neuron can take two signals such as timing and intensity of sound and multiply them together • The timing and loudness information in a sound are analyzed in different, parallel pathways in the brain – even though they start together in the same nerves in the ear and recombine at the same brain cells, they don’t go down the same pipe.
Learn something at a young age, and it’s much easier to re-learn it when you’re an adult. Owls that learned to cope with something new as juveniles, and wired a new pathway in their brain for it, didn’t lose the wiring even when things went back to normal. As soon as they needed the learned pathway again, it was there and ready.
And an old owl can learn new tricks – as long as it can learn them gradually. Older owls can’t adapt to radical changes very easily. But give them the change in small pieces and they learn to cope much better. This means patients recovering from strokes and other brain damage may be able to recover far more capability than their doctors previously thought, if given the right training regimen in which recovery is broken down into small increments. Professor Masakazu (Mark) Konishi is the Bing Professor of Behavioral Biology at the California Institute of Technology. Professor Eric I. Knudsen is the Sewall Professor of Neurobiology at the School of Medicine, Stanford University.
John Robert Vane
Nobel1982【学术贡献】Discovery of prostaglandins
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Sir John Robert Vane FRS (29 March 1927 – 19 November 2004) was an English pharmacologist who was instrumental in the understanding of how aspirin produces pain-relief and anti-inflammatory effects and his work led to new treatments for heart and blood vessel disease and introduction of ACE inhibitors. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1982 along with Sune Bergström and Bengt Samuelsson for "their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances".British
Daniel Bovet
Nobel1957【学术贡献】Work on synthetic substances that inhibit action of body substances.
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Daniel Bovet ForMemRS (23 March 1907 – 8 April 1992) was a Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist who won the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of drugs that block the actions of specific neurotransmitters. He is best known for his discovery in 1937 of antihistamines, which block the neurotransmitter histamine and are used in allergy medication. His other research included work on chemotherapy, sulfa drugs, the sympathetic nervous system, the pharmacology of curare, and other neuropharmacological interests.Italian
John O’Keefe
Gruber2008【学术贡献】THE DISCOVERY OF PLACE CELLS AND THEIR KEY ROLE IN COGNITION
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
John O’Keefe has had a lifetime interest in understanding the functions of the limbic system, the part of the brain involved in memory and emotions. During his PhD work at McGill University, he developed the techniques for recording from single cells in the brains of freely-moving animals.

Shortly after arriving at University College London, he switched his attention to the hippocampus which was already known to be involved in the storage of memories. He discovered that hippocampal cells responded selectively to the animal’s spatial location and called these cells place cells.

“The existence of a class of cells with such abstract properties, together with other aspects of hippocampal anatomy and physiology, suggested that this part of the brain might function as a cognitive map.” O’Keefe says. The cognitive map theory elaborated with Lynn Nadel is now one of the dominant theoretical paradigms in the study of hippocampal function.

The theory predicted the existence of cells in the hippocampal formation representing distance and direction which would bind together the place representations into a map-like structure. Both cell types are now known to exist. The cognitive map theory also predicted a selective deficit in spatial memory following hippocampal damage and O’Keefe’s laboratory was the first to confirm this.

Recently, O’Keefe’s team has shown that place cells serve as the basis for spatial memories: they initially treat differently-shaped environments as similar but learn to discriminate between them with repeated experience.

“For many years, I have been interested in the philosophical implications of findings and theories in the field of neuroscience,” O’Keefe says. “I believe that our sense of objective three-dimensional space is given to us by the brain and is not a property of the physical world, a theory originally proposed by Immanuel Kant.”
Torsten N. Wiesel
Nobel1981【学术贡献】Information processing in the visual system
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Torsten Nils Wiesel (born 3 June 1924) is a Swedish neurophysiologist. Together with David H. Hubel, he received the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system; the prize was shared with Roger W. Sperry for his independent research on the cerebral hemispheres.American
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Nobel1986【学术贡献】Control of nerve cell growth
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Rita Levi-Montalcini, OMRI, OMCA (Italian pronunciation: [ˈriːta ˈlɛːvi montalˈtʃiːni]; 22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology. She was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with colleague Stanley Cohen for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF). From 2001 until her death, she also served in the Italian Senate as a Senator for Life. This honor was given due to her significant scientific contributions.Italian, American
Richard Axel
Nobel2004【学术贡献】Discovery of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Richard Axel (born July 2, 1946) is an American molecular biologist and university professor in the Department of Neuroscience at Columbia University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. His work on the olfactory system won him and Linda Buck, a former postdoctoral research scientist in his group, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004.American
May-Britt Moser
Nobel2014【学术贡献】Discovery of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
May-Britt Moser (born 4 January 1963) is a Norwegian psychologist, neuroscientist, and head of department of the Centre for Neural Computation at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). She and her then-husband, Edvard Moser, shared half of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, awarded for work concerning the grid cells in the entorhinal cortex, as well as several additional space-representing cell types in the same circuit that make up the positioning system in the brain.Norwegian
John O'Keefe
Nobel2014【学术贡献】Discovery of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
American, British
Michael Rosbash
Gruber2009【学术贡献】Pioneering Work in Uncovering the Molecular Basis of Circadian Rhythms in the Nervous System
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
When Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young began their investigations three decades ago into whether genes influenced the behavior of the tiny, humble fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), they had no idea where their studies would lead. “When you start on a problem like this, you don’t know how far you will get,” says Young. “Of course, you hope to find out something interesting, but you can’t be sure.”

But something interesting—indeed, groundbreaking—is exactly what they did uncover. Using the then-emerging tools of recombinant DNA, Young (at Rockefeller University) and Hall and Rosbash (at Brandeis University) successfully isolated Drosophila’s period gene, which dictates the day-night activity cycle of the fly. A few years—and much research—later, they proposed the molecular mechanism behind Drosophila’s 24-hour internal clock: a transcriptional negative-feedback loop. Further research from their labs uncovered additional genes and gene products crucial to this mechanism’s timing and operation.

With these discoveries, Hall, Rosbash, and Young clearly established a direct link between genes and behavior. Other scientists have found that these discoveries apply not only to the fruit fly, but to all living organisms, including humans. One of the clinical applications of this research has been the development of chronotherapies, medical treatments that take into account the biological rhythms of the patient and of the disease itself.

All three scientists continue their studies into the molecular workings of Drosophila behavior. Hall, a professor of biology at the University of Maine, is investigating the neurogenetics of the fruit fly’s courtship rhythms. Rosbash, professor and director of the National Center for Behavioral Genomics at Brandeis University, is trying to identify the precise relationship between the pacemaker in the Drosophila circadian clock and the light-dark cycle as well as the neural circuit in the fly’s brain that underlies the circadian rest-activity cycle. Young, professor and head of the Laboratory of Genetics at Rockefeller University, also has several current research foci, including studies of molecular changes in the circadian clock that alter patterns of human sleep.
Lily Jan
Gruber2012【学术贡献】Fundamental Contributions to Molecular Neurobiology
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Lily Jan, PhD, and Yuh Nung Jan, PhD, have contributed to many areas of neuroscience. Their first major contribution was the discovery that molecules known as peptides can act as neurotransmitters (chemicals that transfer messages from one neuron to another). In 1982, they published a landmark paper in the Journal of Physiology that described how a peptide called luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) acts as a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located in the network of nerves that carry messages from the brain throughout the body, by influencing not only those nerve cells near the release site for this peptide but also other nerve cells within the sympathetic ganglia. That paper opened up a major new field of study. Scientists have since discovered dozens of peptide neurotransmitters, whose properties and function are being actively studied for their role in health and disease.

The Jans have also been pioneering leaders in the study of potassium channels, which are pores on the membranes of nerve cells that serve as gatekeepers for charged atoms known as potassium ions as they flow in and out of the cells. They discovered that potassium channel abnormalities were responsible for the abnormal limb movements of a mutant strain of fruit flies known as “Shaker,” and, in 1987, reported (in another landmark paper) the cloning of the Shaker gene. This event—the first successful cloning of a gene for a potassium ion channel—opened up yet another new field of research. In the ensuing 25 years, dozens of human genes encoding various potassium ion channels have been cloned, and mutations in these genes have been linked to a variety of diseases, including heart rhythm problems, epilepsy, and hypertension. The Jans have continued to contribute to many important advances in this field.

In addition to their prolific work on potassium channels, the Jans have also been leaders in the field of neural development. Their research has led to many important discoveries regarding how different types of neurons develop their specific form and structure during embryonic development. They have helped explain, for example, how neurons use certain proteins to acquire their identity; how the division of a single neural progenitor cell can generate two dissimilar “daughter” cells, thus ensuring cellular diversity in the mature brain; and how neurons develop dendrites, the branched extension of a neuron that receive and integrate sensory inputs and signals from nearby neurons.
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
Nobel1927【学术贡献】Discovery of Malaria inoculation to treat dementia paralytica
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Julius Wagner-Jauregg (7 March 1857 – 27 September 1940) was an Austrian physician, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1927, and is the first psychiatrist to have done so. His Nobel award was "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica".Austrian
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Nobel1963【学术贡献】Ionic mechanisms of nerve cell membrane
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin OM KBE PRS (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.British
Edvard I. Moser
Nobel2014【学术贡献】Discovery of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Edvard Ingjald Moser (pronounced [ɛdvɑɖ moːsɛr];[stress and tone?] born 27 April 1962) is a Norwegian psychologist and neuroscientist, who is a professor of psychology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2014 with his then-wife May-Britt Moser and their mentor John O'Keefe for their work identifying the place cells that make up the brain's positioning system. He is an external scientific member of the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, with which he has collaborated over several years.Norwegian
Allvar Gullstrand
Nobel1911【学术贡献】Optics of the Eye
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Allvar Gullstrand (5 June 1862 – 28 July 1930) was a Swedish ophthalmologist and optician.Swedish
Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield
Nobel1979【学术贡献】Invention of computer-assisted tomography
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (28 August 1919 – 12 August 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT).[1[1British
Roderick MacKinnon
Nobel2003【学术贡献】Structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Roderick MacKinnon (born 19 February 1956) is a professor of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics at Rockefeller University who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Peter Agre in 2003 for his work on the structure and operation of ion channels.American
Eve Marder
Gruber2013【学术贡献】Pioneering Contributions to the Understanding of Neural Circuitry
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
When Eve Marder began her research on the lobster stomatagastric-ganglion (STG) system four decades ago, she had no idea that it would be the neural circuit that would define her career. Today, however, no scientist is more strongly associated with that small 30-neuron example of a central-pattern generator, a neural circuit that produces automatic rhythmic outputs of behavior, like digestion and breathing. As a result of her pioneering research on the STG, Marder has transformed and deepened our knowledge about how all neural circuits, including those in the human brain, produce behavior. Such research is also helping scientists better understand what goes awry in those circuits to cause neurobiological disorders and disease, such as schizophrenia, depression, epilepsy, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain.

Marder’s introduction to the STG occurred in the early 1970s while she was in graduate school at the University of California, San Diego. At that time, most scientists believed that the connections in neural circuits were “hard-wired” to produce a single pattern of output, or behavior. Using the STG, Marder showed that neural circuits were actually quite plastic and able to change both their parameters and function in direct response to various endogenous chemicals in the brain, or neuromodulators. This marked a paradigm shift in how scientists viewed the architecture and function of all neural circuits.

Since 1978, Marder has been conducting her research at Brandeis University, her undergraduate alma mater. There, in addition to her work on neural networks, she has helped pioneer the expansion of theoretical neuroscience and co-developed a major experimental tool known as the dynamic clamp. It allows scientists to introduce computational and mathematical modeled synaptic or other conductances into biological neurons, and is now used in laboratories around the world.

More recently, Marder has been investigating how neural circuits maintain stability, or homeostasis, over long periods of time despite constant neuromodulation and reconfiguration. This research promises to lead to a better understanding of what happens when the circuits go awry and cause neurological disease, such as schizophrenia, depression, and epilepsy. Outside of the laboratory, Marder remains active, as she has throughout her career, in efforts to improve and expand neuroscience education and research. She currently serves on the National Institutes of Health working group for President Obama’s BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Technologies) initiative.

James E. Rothman
Nobel2013【学术贡献】Discovery of the machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
James Edward Rothman (November 3, 1950 – ) is an American biochemist. He is the Fergus F. Wallace Professor of Biomedical Sciences at Yale University, the Chairman of the Department of Cell Biology at Yale School of Medicine, and the Director of the Nanobiology Institute at the Yale West Campus. Rothman also concurrently serves as adjunct professor of physiology and cellular biophysics at Columbia University and a research professor at the UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London. Rothman was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on vesicle trafficking (shared with Randy Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof). He received many other honors including the King Faisal International Prize in 1996, the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University and the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research both in 2002.[1American
Eric Knudsen
Gruber2005【学术贡献】discovered fundamental neural mechanisms that underlie sound localization in a brilliant series of experiments
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Owl brain maps reveal how we hear and learn

The way owls pinpoint their prey in absolute darkness has taught us how we map sound in our brains. And it’s led to better understandings of how our brains learn and change with experience.

For their initial discovery of the topographical sound map in an owl’s brain, and two decades of follow-on research into sound perception and brain learning, the 2005 Neuroscience Prize of the Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation was awarded to Masakazu Konishi and Eric Knudsen.

Owls have one of the most sensitive auditory systems in the natural world, allowing them to hunt their prey at night. The accuracy with which owls target the direction of their prey (using the time difference between a sound arriving at each ear) is around three times than that of a human. That’s why they made an ideal research animal for Masakazu Konishi and Eric Knudsen, who wanted to study the perception of sound location – how we know where something is when we hear it.

To their surprise, they found that the owl’s brain creates a map. In the owl’s midbrain there is a two-dimensional layout consisting of thousands of neurons. A noise from one location in the world activated only the neurons in a specific position in the map. If the noise moved up, down, left or right, the patch of activated neurons moved across the brain map in a corresponding pattern.

That led to more questions. Like: how do owls make the map?

How do their brains translate sound signals into spatial signals? How old are they when they learn to make a map from sounds? Do young owls learn new maps more easily than do adult owls?

Konishi and Knudsen have continued working on the answers to these and other questions in their separate labs since 1979. Among their many results:

A single neuron can take two signals such as timing and intensity of sound and multiply them together • The timing and loudness information in a sound are analyzed in different, parallel pathways in the brain – even though they start together in the same nerves in the ear and recombine at the same brain cells, they don’t go down the same pipe.
Learn something at a young age, and it’s much easier to re-learn it when you’re an adult. Owls that learned to cope with something new as juveniles, and wired a new pathway in their brain for it, didn’t lose the wiring even when things went back to normal. As soon as they needed the learned pathway again, it was there and ready.
And an old owl can learn new tricks – as long as it can learn them gradually. Older owls can’t adapt to radical changes very easily. But give them the change in small pieces and they learn to cope much better. This means patients recovering from strokes and other brain damage may be able to recover far more capability than their doctors previously thought, if given the right training regimen in which recovery is broken down into small increments. Professor Masakazu (Mark) Konishi is the Bing Professor of Behavioral Biology at the California Institute of Technology. Professor Eric I. Knudsen is the Sewall Professor of Neurobiology at the School of Medicine, Stanford University.
Thomas C. Südhof
Kavli2010【学术贡献】Discovering the molecular basis of neurotransmitter release
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Thomas Südhof used powerful biochemical and molecular biological approaches to identify other important synaptic vesicle proteins. He discovered that one of the vesicle membrane proteins, synaptotagmin, had separate calcium and phospholipid binding domains, suggesting it had a key role in transmitter release. Südhof then made use of the emerging power of mouse genetics to delineate the functional role of a number of these vesicle proteins including the role of synaptotagmin, which he demonstrated to be the critical calcium sensor for rapid neurotransmitter release.
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Nobel1976【学术贡献】Mechanisms for origin and dissemination of infection disease
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (/ˈɡaɪdəʃɛk/ GHY-də-shek; September 9, 1923 – December 12, 2008) was an American physician and medical researcher who was the co-recipient (with Baruch S. Blumberg) of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1976 for work on an infectious agent which would later be identified as kuru, the first known human prion disease.
In 1996, Gajdusek was charged with child molestation and, after being convicted, spent 12 months in prison before entering a self-imposed exile in Europe, where he died a decade later. His papers are held at the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland. and at the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
American
Winfried Denk
Kavli2012【学术贡献】Elucidating basic neuronal mechanisms underlying perception and decision
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Winfried Denk has devised two experimental innovations of broad impact to studies of how individual neurons respond to synaptic inputs. He developed multi-photon microscopy, which revolutionized high resolution imaging in the living brain. Using this technique, he discovered that direction selectivity is computed locally in individual dendritic branches of starburst amacrine cells in the retina. His invention of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy then revealed the wiring asymmetry between these inter-neurons and the retinal ganglion cells that convey motion information to the brain.
Eric R. Kandel
Nobel2000【学术贡献】Signal transduction in the nervous system/learning
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Eric Richard Kandel (German: [ˈkandəl]; born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American medical doctor who specialized in Psychiatry, a neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University. He was a recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. He shared the prize with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard.American
Ann Martin Graybiel
Kavli2012【学术贡献】Elucidating basic neuronal mechanisms underlying perception and decision
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Ann Graybiel has unravelled the modular architecture of the striatum, and discovered striatal plasticity underlying habit learning. Her detailed analysis of how multiple cortico-striatal loops change when animals learn new skills reveals the way neuronal circuits organize familiar motor patterns into action sequences.
Martin Rodbell
Nobel1994【学术贡献】Discovery of G-protein coupled receptors and their role in signal transduction
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Martin Rodbell (December 1, 1925 – December 7, 1998) was an American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist who is best known for his discovery of G-proteins. He shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Alfred G. Gilman for "their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells."
According to a Plaque posted in Silver Spring Maryland, Dr. Martin Rodbell was a "Nobel Laureate in medicine for discovering that cells were like computer chips."
American
Michael Greenberg
Gruber2015【学术贡献】Pioneering Work on the Molecular Mechanisms that Control Brain Development and Plasticity
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Michael Greenberg was born in Florida, but raised in Brooklyn, New York as the youngest of four children. Although no one in his family had previously worked in a science-related field, Greenberg became hooked on biochemistry and biophysics after his junior year in high school, when he participated in a National Science Foundation summer program at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo New York. After graduating magna cum laude in 1976 from Wesleyan University with a degree in chemistry, Greenberg pursued his doctoral studies at The Rockefeller University where he received a PhD in biochemistry in 1982 for research carried out in the laboratory of biologist (and Nobel laureate) Gerald Edelman. For his postdoctoral studies Greenberg worked in the New York University laboratory of molecular biologist Edward Ziff. In 1986, Greenberg accepted an assistant professorship at Harvard Medical School’s Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, where he stayed until 1994, when he joined the neurology faculty at Children’s Hospital Boston, to direct the Division of Neuroscience. He returned to Harvard Medical School in 2008 to become the Chair of the Department of Neurobiology, a position he continues to hold.

Greenberg has spent the last 30 years unlocking the mysteries of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of experience on the brain thus elucidating how nature and nurture are intertwined during brain development. In 1984, he made the landmark discovery that growth factors send signals from the cell surface to the nucleus instructing cells to transcribe the c-fos gene. Since then Greenberg and other researchers demonstrated that this process is induced in neurons in response to neural activity, and have identified hundreds of genes in addition to c-fos that are activated in the brain in response to sensory stimuli. Greenberg has described in elegant detail the neural pathways of this transcription process, including how the “L-type” voltage-gated Ca2+ calcium channel leads to gene expression crucial for synapse development and for learning and memory. Working with cultured mouse neurons, Greenberg recently demonstrated that across the genome “enhancer regions” of DNA are not only activated by sensory stimuli, but also create strands of enhancer RNA (eRNA) that appear to play a role in the neuron’s response to an external stimulus More recently, Greenberg has reported that the lack of the one crucial regulator of sensory-dependent gene expression, MeCP2, results in the disruption of the expression of long genes in the brain, a finding with profound implications for Rett syndrome and other neurobiological disorders.
Otto Loewi
Nobel1936【学术贡献】Chemical transmission of nerve impulses
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Otto Loewi (3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.German, American
Karl von Frisch
Nobel1973【学术贡献】Ethology
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Karl Ritter[a] von Frisch, ForMemRS (20 November 1886 – 12 June 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz.Austrian
Sune K. Bergstrom
Nobel1982【学术贡献】Discovery of prostaglandins
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Karl Sune Detlof Bergström (10 January 1916 – 15 August 2004) was a Swedish biochemist. In 1975, he was appointed to the Nobel Foundation Board of Directors in Sweden, and was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University, together with Bengt I. Samuelsson.
He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane in 1982, for discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related substances.
Swedish
Konrad Zacharias Lorenz
Nobel1973【学术贡献】Ethology
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (German pronunciation: [ˈkɔnʁaːt ˈloːʁɛnts]; 7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist. He shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch. He is often regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, the study of animal behaviour. He developed an approach that began with an earlier generation, including his teacher Oskar Heinroth.Austrian
Paul C. Lauterbur
Nobel2003【学术贡献】Discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Paul Christian Lauterbur (May 6, 1929 – March 27, 2007) was an American chemist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 with Peter Mansfield for his work which made the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible.American
Baruch S. Blumberg
Nobel1976【学术贡献】Mechanisms for origin and dissemination of infection disease
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Baruch Samuel Blumberg (July 28, 1925 – April 5, 2011) — known as Barry Blumberg — was an American physician, geneticist, and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek), for his work on the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH. He was President of the American Philosophical Society from 2005 until his death.American
Robert Barany
Nobel1914【学术贡献】Physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Robert Bárány (22 April 1876 – 8 April 1936) Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈroːbɛrt ˈbaːraːɲ] was an Austro-Hungarian otologist. He received the 1914 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus.Austrian
Robert H. Wurtz
Gruber2010【学术贡献】PIONEERING WORK IN THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF VISUAL COGNITION
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Visual cognition was only a nascent field of neuroscience in 1969, the year that Robert H. Wurtz, PhD, then a physiologist at the National Institute of Mental Health, published a landmark paper in which he demonstrated for the first time how neurons involved in the visual processing of an awake monkey could be observed and recorded. Before then, animals had to be anesthetized to record their neuronal activity—a process that limited what could be studied. Wurtz’s technique (which involved training the monkeys to hold their eyes still for a few seconds while he recorded their neurons as they reacted to moving objects and other visual stimuli) is now used by cognitive neuroscientists around the world and has paved the way for subsequent research on visual cognition, including investigations into such phenomena as attention, motion perception, and motivation.

Wurtz went on to make other groundbreaking discoveries. For example, he mapped the fields of individual neurons in the awake brain that receive visual information. He elucidated how different forebrain structures, such as the primary visual cortex, contribute to visual processing and how subcortical brains structures, such as the superior colliculus and the basal ganglia, initiate eye movements. He also discovered and described some of the complex pathways by which these various structures interact with each other.

Wurtz, who helped found and then headed the National Eye Institute’s Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research for 24 years (1978–2002), has inspired many others in the broad field of cognitive neuroscience. The result: Scientists now have a deeper understanding of how the brain processes the sensory signals that underlie perception and the control of movement. This knowledge has helped to unlock some of the neurophysiological mysteries of various brain conditions and diseases, including stroke, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
Thomas C. Sudhof
Nobel2013【学术贡献】Discovery of the machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Thomas Christian Südhof (born December 22, 1955), ForMemRS, is a German-American biochemist known for his study of synaptic transmission. Currently, he is a professor in the School of Medicine in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, and by courtesy in Neurology, and in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University.German-American
Randy W. Schekman
Nobel2013【学术贡献】Discovery of the machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Randy Wayne Schekman (born December 30, 1948) is an American cell biologist at the University of California, Berkeley and former editor-in-chief of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In 2011, he was announced as the editor of eLife, a new high-profile open-access journal published by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Max Planck Society and the Wellcome Trust launching in 2012. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1992.[1 Schekman shared the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with James Rothman and Thomas C. Südhof for their ground-breaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking.[1[1American
Stanley B. Prusiner
Nobel1997【学术贡献】Discovery of prions; a new biological principle of infection
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Stanley Benjamin Prusiner M.D (born May 28, 1942) is an American neurologist and biochemist. He is the director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Prusiner discovered prions, a class of infectious self-reproducing pathogens primarily or solely composed of protein. He received the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1994 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1997 for prion research developed by him and his team of experts (David E. Garfin, D. P. Stites, W. J. Hadlow, C. W. Eklund) beginning in the early 1970s.American
John O’Keefe
Kavli2014【学术贡献】The discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
John O’Keefe discovered that the hippocampus contains neurons that encode an animal’s specific location. These place cells allow detection of novelty and changes in familiar environments and collectively form a cognitive map critical for animal navigation behaviour.
This discovery provides a sterling example of neuronal signalling in a specific brain region involved in memory formation.
Jeffrey Hall
Gruber2009【学术贡献】Pioneering Work in Uncovering the Molecular Basis of Circadian Rhythms in the Nervous System
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
When Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young began their investigations three decades ago into whether genes influenced the behavior of the tiny, humble fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), they had no idea where their studies would lead. “When you start on a problem like this, you don’t know how far you will get,” says Young. “Of course, you hope to find out something interesting, but you can’t be sure.”

But something interesting—indeed, groundbreaking—is exactly what they did uncover. Using the then-emerging tools of recombinant DNA, Young (at Rockefeller University) and Hall and Rosbash (at Brandeis University) successfully isolated Drosophila’s period gene, which dictates the day-night activity cycle of the fly. A few years—and much research—later, they proposed the molecular mechanism behind Drosophila’s 24-hour internal clock: a transcriptional negative-feedback loop. Further research from their labs uncovered additional genes and gene products crucial to this mechanism’s timing and operation.

With these discoveries, Hall, Rosbash, and Young clearly established a direct link between genes and behavior. Other scientists have found that these discoveries apply not only to the fruit fly, but to all living organisms, including humans. One of the clinical applications of this research has been the development of chronotherapies, medical treatments that take into account the biological rhythms of the patient and of the disease itself.

All three scientists continue their studies into the molecular workings of Drosophila behavior. Hall, a professor of biology at the University of Maine, is investigating the neurogenetics of the fruit fly’s courtship rhythms. Rosbash, professor and director of the National Center for Behavioral Genomics at Brandeis University, is trying to identify the precise relationship between the pacemaker in the Drosophila circadian clock and the light-dark cycle as well as the neural circuit in the fly’s brain that underlies the circadian rest-activity cycle. Young, professor and head of the Laboratory of Genetics at Rockefeller University, also has several current research foci, including studies of molecular changes in the circadian clock that alter patterns of human sleep.
Erwin Neher
Nobel1991【学术贡献】Function of single ion channels in cells
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Erwin Neher (/ˈneɪər/; German: [ˈneːɐ]; born 20 March 1944) is a German biophysicist, specializing in the field of cell physiology. For significant contribution in the field, in 1991 he was awarded, along with Bert Sakmann, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for "their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells".German
Roger Nicoll
Gruber2006【学术贡献】provided the keys to our understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of learning and memory
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Professor Roger Nicoll from the University of California, San Francisco and Professor Masao Ito from the Rikin Institute in Japan, have together provided the keys to our understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of learning and memory.

Professor Nicoll, Professor of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at the University of California, San Francisco and Professor Ito, special advisor to the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan, received their awards at the annual conference of the Society for Neuroscience held this year in Atlanta, Georgia. Each received a gold medal and a $125,000 cash prize.

Nicoll and Ito have been shining light on the complex workings of the brain for the past four decades. Both men worked with, and have built on the achievements of, Nobel Laureate John Eccles.

They are the third recipients of the Neuroscience Prize of the Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, which is awarded annually to honor the most distinguished work in the field of the brain, nervous system and the spinal cord.

What is memory? In one of many research contributions, Ito showed how motor learning (subconscious memory of procedures like driving) might function in the cerebellum. His team has identified over 30 molecules involved in these processes.

Nicoll has shown how episodic memory (such as memory of personal emotions and associations with a particular place) might be stored in the hippocampus.

These and many other discoveries have opened up new fields of study for neuroscience.

The work of Nicoll and Ito is teaching us how our brains work at a molecular level. Once we understand the chemistry of thought we may then be able to design better drugs to deal with Alzheimer’s and other degenerative diseases of the brain.
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Nobel1944【学术贡献】Differentiated functions of single nerve fibers
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Herbert Spencer Gasser (July 5, 1888 – May 11, 1963) was an American physiologist, and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944 for his work with action potentials in nerve fibers while on the faculty of Washington University in St. Louis, awarded jointly with Joseph Erlanger.American
Alfred G. Gilman
Nobel1994【学术贡献】Discovery of G-protein coupled receptors and their role in signal transduction
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Alfred Goodman Gilman (July 1, 1941 – December 23, 2015) was an American pharmacologist and biochemist. He and Martin Rodbell shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells."American
Eve Marder
Kavli2016【学术贡献】The Discovery of mechanisms that allow experience and neural activity to remodel brain function
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Eve Marder used the simple circuits of crustaceans to elucidate the dynamic interplay between flexibility and stability in the nervous system. She showed that numerous neuromodulators reconfigure the output of adult neural circuits without altering their underlying anatomy. At the same time, she found that circuits can generate similar neuronal and network outputs from many different configurations of intrinsic neuronal excitability and synaptic strength. This apparent paradox was solved by her recognition that neurons have a self-regulating homeostatic programme that drives them to a stable target activity level. With the other two Kavli Prize laureates, Marder defined the mechanisms by which brains remain stable while allowing for change during development and learning.
Michael W. Young
Nobel2017【学术贡献】Discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Michael Warren Young (born March 28, 1949) is an American biologist and geneticist. He has dedicated over three decades to research studying genetically controlled patterns of sleep and wakefulness within Drosophila melanogaster. During his time at Rockefeller University, his lab has made significant contributions in the field of chronobiology by identifying key genes associated with regulation of the internal clock responsible for circadian rhythms. He was able to elucidate the function of the period gene, which is necessary for the fly to exhibit normal sleep cycles. Young's lab is also attributed with the discovery of the timeless and doubletime genes, which makes proteins that are also necessary for circadian rhythm. He was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Jeffrey C. Hall and Michael Rosbash "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".American
Joshua Sane
Gruber2017【学术贡献】Pioneering Work on the Formation and Specificity of Neural Synapses
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Joshua R. Sanes, PhD, director of the Center for Brain Science at Harvard University, has been a pioneer in the study of the formation of synapses, the communication junctions between neurons. Early in his career, while studying the neuromuscular junction, the synapse where motor neurons transmit signals to muscle fibers, he demonstrated for the first time that some of the signals used to organize the synapse were contained in the extracellular matrix that surrounds the muscle fiber. That groundbreaking discovery marked a paradigm shift in how scientists view synaptic formation and organization. In a series of elegant experiments, Sanes then went on to identify and characterize many of the molecular factors within the extracellular matrix that help direct the formation of the neuromuscular junction. In more recent years, Sanes has turned his attention to the synaptic organization of neural circuits in the retina, which form the basis for visual processing. He has elucidated many of the molecules within those circuits that promote specificity, the ability of individual neurons to form synapses with specific subsets of presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. These findings have led to transformative new ideas about the functional architecture of the central nervous system.
Huda Zoghbi
Gruber2011【学术贡献】Pioneering Work in Revealing the Genetic and Molecular Underpinnings of Neurological Disorders
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Although she initially trained to be a clinical pediatric neurologist, Huda Y. Zoghbi, MD, soon found herself drawn to research. “I was encountering a lot of patients who had devastating neurological problems, and many of them were genetic,” she recalls. “All we could do was make a diagnosis, but we didn’t know the cause.” In 1988, after completing a postdoctoral fellowship with Dr. Arthur L. Beaudet in the Institute of Molecular Genetics at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, Zoghbi started her own research lab at Baylor. She has remained there ever since.

Zoghbi’s clinical background has informed her research. “Her work seamlessly combines top-down (clinical neurology) and bottom-up (basic genetics and molecular neuroscience) research strategies to generate new biological insights and new ideas for treatment,” noted a nominator for the 2011 Gruber Neuroscience Prize. In 1993, Zoghbi identified the mutation in the gene ATXN1 that is responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, a deadly neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressively worsening of problems with movement. A few years later, in 1999, Zoghbi’s lab identified the mutation in the gene MECP2 that causes Rett syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder. Before that discovery, it was not even clear that this brain disorder was genetic.

Another major finding from Zoghbi’s lab has been the identification of Math1, a kind of “master gene” that plays a critical role in the formation of hair cells in the inner ear as well as specialized neurons in the cerebellum involved in balance and proprioception (the unconscious sense of one’s position in space). Math1 is also a factor in the development of a common brain tumor called medulloblastoma, which primarily affects children and young adults.

Zoghbi has continued her investigations into the genetic and molecular underpinnings of these and other neurological disorders. Her pioneering work has inspired many other researchers in the broad field of neurological disorders, and serves as an exemplar of how complex brain disorders can be better understood by basic genetics and molecular neuroscience.

“Most people go into science because they’re curious about something,” she adds. “ I have to say that I went into it to discover something that might help the patient.”
Michael W. Young
Gruber2009【学术贡献】Pioneering Work in Uncovering the Molecular Basis of Circadian Rhythms in the Nervous System
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Raised in and around Miami, Florida, Michael W. Young became fascinated by biological clocks—internal mechanisms that control the timing of activities in living organisms—around the age of 12 after seeing an exotic plant with flowers that opened only at night (and closed during the day) and then reading a book on evolution, which included a section on how birds and insects use biological clocks to navigate.

Young was introduced to the Drosophila genome at the University of Texas at Austin, where he received his undergraduate degree in biology (1971) and his doctorate in genetics (1975). During a postdoctoral fellowship in biochemistry at the Stanford School of Medicine he began to study molecular genetics, specifically transposable elements (segments of DNA that can move from one place to another in a cell’s genome). In 1978, he received an Andre and Bella Meyer Foundation fellowship and was appointed assistant professor at Rockefeller University, where he remains today. He is currently the university’s Richard and Jeanne Fisher Professor and vice president for academic affairs.

Young’s three-decades-long research into the molecular biology and genetics of biological rhythms has played a pivotal role in establishing the complex and fascinating relationship between genes and behavior. Research from his lab has led to the discovery of many of the small group of genes and proteins that regulate circadian clocks in Drosophila.

When Young began investigating the circadian rhythms in the fruit fly, he had no idea where it would take him. “So many times in biology the solutions are much cleaner than you imagined at the outset,” he says. “The simplicity and robustness of this mechanism was unexpected.”

Young has received many honors for his discoveries in modern molecular genetics, including the Pittendrigh/Aschoff Award from the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms in 2006. He became a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology in 2007.

Young continues to study the circadian rhythms of gene expression systems in Drosophila, but an added focus has become the study of molecular changes in circadian clocks that lead to human sleep disorders.
Christine Petit
Kavli2018【学术贡献】Pioneering work on the molecular and neural mechanisms of hearing
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Christine Petit has explored the genetics of hereditary deafness in humans and identified more than twenty genes that are required for hearing and inner ear development. She elucidated the mechanisms through which these mutations cause hearing deficits, thus illuminating the unique biology of hair cells and informing deafness diagnosis and counseling. Several of the genes she identified form major components of the hair cell mechanotransduction machinery. Collectively the breakthroughs made by this year’s Kavli Prize laureates have unveiled the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie hearing and deafness.
Georg Von Bekesy
Nobel1961【学术贡献】Function of the cochlea
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Hungarian, American
Yuh Nung Jan
Gruber2012【学术贡献】Fundamental Contributions to Molecular Neurobiology
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Lily Jan, PhD, and Yuh Nung Jan, PhD, have contributed to many areas of neuroscience. Their first major contribution was the discovery that molecules known as peptides can act as neurotransmitters (chemicals that transfer messages from one neuron to another). In 1982, they published a landmark paper in the Journal of Physiology that described how a peptide called luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) acts as a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located in the network of nerves that carry messages from the brain throughout the body, by influencing not only those nerve cells near the release site for this peptide but also other nerve cells within the sympathetic ganglia. That paper opened up a major new field of study. Scientists have since discovered dozens of peptide neurotransmitters, whose properties and function are being actively studied for their role in health and disease.

The Jans have also been pioneering leaders in the study of potassium channels, which are pores on the membranes of nerve cells that serve as gatekeepers for charged atoms known as potassium ions as they flow in and out of the cells. They discovered that potassium channel abnormalities were responsible for the abnormal limb movements of a mutant strain of fruit flies known as “Shaker,” and, in 1987, reported (in another landmark paper) the cloning of the Shaker gene. This event—the first successful cloning of a gene for a potassium ion channel—opened up yet another new field of research. In the ensuing 25 years, dozens of human genes encoding various potassium ion channels have been cloned, and mutations in these genes have been linked to a variety of diseases, including heart rhythm problems, epilepsy, and hypertension. The Jans have continued to contribute to many important advances in this field.

In addition to their prolific work on potassium channels, the Jans have also been leaders in the field of neural development. Their research has led to many important discoveries regarding how different types of neurons develop their specific form and structure during embryonic development. They have helped explain, for example, how neurons use certain proteins to acquire their identity; how the division of a single neural progenitor cell can generate two dissimilar “daughter” cells, thus ensuring cellular diversity in the mature brain; and how neurons develop dendrites, the branched extension of a neuron that receive and integrate sensory inputs and signals from nearby neurons.
David Hunter Hubel
Nobel1981【学术贡献】Information processing in the visual system
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
David Hunter Hubel FRS (February 27, 1926 – September 22, 2013) was a Canadian American neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex. He was co-recipient with Torsten Wiesel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with Roger W. Sperry), for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. For much of his career, Hubel was the John Franklin Enders University Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. In 1978, Hubel and Wiesel were awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University.Canadian, American
Joseph Erlanger
Nobel1944【学术贡献】Differentiated functions of single nerve fibers
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Joseph Erlanger (January 5, 1874 – December 5, 1965) was an American physiologist who is best known for his contributions to the field of neuroscience. Together with Herbert Spencer Gasser, he identified several varieties of nerve fiber and established the relationship between action potential velocity and fiber diameter. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1944 for these achievements.American
Sir Bernard Katz
Nobel1970【学术贡献】Release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术



Sir Bernard Katz, FRS(26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003)[2] was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology. He shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was knighted in 1969.
German, British
Seymour Benzer
Gruber2004【学术贡献】Pioneering Scientist in Neurogenetics and Developmental Biology
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Seymour Benzer’s half century-long career has transformed our understanding of the brain and profoundly influenced generations of scientists.
Benzer started his career as a solid-state physicist, switching to biology in 1949.
In the early 1960s, after having made several major contributions to the understanding of gene structure and the genetic code, Benzer switched fields again and inaugurated and developed the new and immensely important field of neurogenetics.
His deceptively simple approach was based on the premise, confirmed by his subsequent work, that the molecular underpinning of neural function and behavior could be dissected by using ingenious genetic screens to isolate behavioral mutants one gene at a time.
Using the fruit fly, Drosophila, he altered one gene after the next and showed that a single gene mutation can give rise to a wide variety of behavioral alterations, including aberrations in courtship, in circadian rhythm, and in memory and learning.
These studies have revolutionized the field of behavioral genetics and have shown that through the genetics of the humble fruit fly the mysteries of how the human brain develops, functions, and becomes sick can be unraveled.
Edgar Douglas Adrian
Nobel1932【学术贡献】Function of neurons in sending messages
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian OM PRS (30 November 1889 – 4 August 1977) was an English electrophysiologist and recipient of the 1932 Nobel Prize for Physiology, won jointly with Sir Charles Sherrington for work on the function of neurons. He provided experimental evidence for the all-or-none law of nerves.British
Wolfram Schultz
Gruber2018【学术贡献】the structure, organization and functions of the basal ganglia.
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Wolfram Schultz, MD, of the University of Cambridge, has revolutionized the concept of how reward information is processed in the brain. In a now-classic series of experiments conducted in the 1980s and 1990s, Schultz demonstrated that when animals receive a reward, dopamine neurons in a brain area known as the basal ganglia send a signal that causes the release of the neurotransmitter. He also showed that the neural pattern of the activity changes as the animals learn how to respond to receive the reward — and that learned cues can trigger changes even in the absence of a reward. In further experiments, he identified and described reward-response neurons in additional brain structures, including the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala. Through these and other pioneering studies, Schultz demonstrated how theory and experiment could be linked, thus dramatically influencing subsequent research on reward and choice. More recently, Schultz has focused his research on uniting prediction error concepts from animal learning theory with economic utility theory, finding strong evidence suggesting that the dopamine response is related to the concept of utility. Those discoveries are transforming both experimental and theoretical research in the relatively new field of neuroeconomics.
Allan MacLeod Cormack
Nobel1979【学术贡献】Invention of computer-assisted tomography
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Allan MacLeod Cormack (February 23, 1924 – May 7, 1998) was a South African American physicist who won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (along with Godfrey Hounsfield) for his work on X-ray computed tomography (CT).South African, American
Masao Ito
Gruber2006【学术贡献】provided the keys to our understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of learning and memory
【链接】颁奖词, 传记, 自传, 维基百科, 微软学术
Professor Masao Ito from the Rikin Institute in Japan, and Professor Roger Nicoll from the University of California, San Francisco, have together provided the keys to our understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of learning and memory.

Professor Ito, special advisor to the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan, and Professor Nicoll, Professor of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at the University of California, San Francisco, received their awards at the annual conference of the Society for Neuroscience held this year in Atlanta, Georgia. Each received a gold medal and a $125,000 cash prize.

Ito and Nicoll have been shining light on the complex workings of the brain for the past four decades. Both men worked with, and have built on the achievements of, Nobel Laureate John Eccles.

They are the third recipients of the Neuroscience Prize of the Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, which is awarded annually to honor the most distinguished work in the field of the brain, nervous system and the spinal cord.

What is memory? In one of many research contributions, Ito showed how motor learning (subconscious memory of procedures like driving) might function in the cerebellum. His team has identified over 30 molecules involved in these processes.

Nicoll has shown how episodic memory (such as memory of personal emotions and associations with a particular place) might be stored in the hippocampus.

These and many other discoveries have opened up new fields of study for neuroscience.

The work of Nicoll and Ito is teaching us how our brains work at a molecular level. Once we understand the chemistry of thought we may then be able to design better drugs to deal with Alzheimer’s and other degenerative diseases of the brain.

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